LaTeX Overview

Just an overview and a reference to the most used functions.

Simple formulars

Just write the symbols, like a = b : \[a=b\]

Power of x by using the ^-sign. Like a^2+b^2=c^2: \[a^2+b^2=c^2\]

Subscript and superscript by using _ and ^, like a_1^2=b_1^2+c_1^2: \[a_1^2=b_1^2+c_1^2\]

Grouping of symbols is done by curly brackets, like a_{ij}^{kl}: \[a_{ij}^{kl}\]

Grouping can be used for larger strings as well, like a_{index}^{matrix-counter}: \[a_{index}^{matrix-counter}\]

Fractions are done with the keyword \frac{}{}, where the brackets are the two parts, like \frac{1}{2} or \frac{a+b}{c+d}: \[\frac{1}{2} \text{ or } \frac{a+b}{c+d}\]

Text within the formular is done by \text{}, like a^2 \text{ or } b^2: \[a^2 \text{ or } b^2\]

Summarize some stuff with \sum_x^y{}, like \sum_{i=0}^{x}{x_i}: \[\sum_{i=0}^{x}{x_i}\]

Depending on the math forumular beeing a block (display mode like above) or being in inline mode, it looks slightly different, like the sum from before is \(\sum_{i=0}^{x}{x_i}\) in inline style.

There are no spaces so you need to use \, for a short space, \: for a medium space and \; for a wide space, or a \! for reducing the space. Take this example: a+b\,+\:c\;+d\!x: \[a+b\,+\:c\;+d\!x\]

The square root is done with \sqrt{}, like \sqrt{2}=1.414 or c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}: \[\sqrt{2}=1.414 \text{ or } c=\sqrt{a^2+b^2}\]

The n-th root is done by specifying an addition square(!) bracket, like \sqrt[6]{x+5}: \[\sqrt[6]{x+5}\]

Overlines and underlines are done like \overline{a^2+b^2} or \underline{a^2+b^2}: \[\overline{a^2+b^2}\] or \[\underline{a^2+b^2}\]

A hat can be done over a symbol or over a whole group, like \hat{a} and \widehat{a^2+b^2}: \[\hat{a} \text{ and } \widehat{a^2+b^2}\]

Integrating some stuff is simply done by using \int_0^{\infty}{x \cdot dx}: \[\int_0^{\infty}{x \cdot dx}\]

A nice integral with the combination of multiple options (btw it is the Gaussian integral) \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} e^{-\frac{1}{2}t^2}dt = \sqrt{2 \cdot \pi}: \[\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} e^{-\frac{1}{2}t^2}dt = \sqrt{2 \cdot \pi}\]

Creating the products over a range, like \prod_{i=0}^{10}{x_i}: \[\prod_{i=0}^{10}{x_i}\]

The limes is done by \lim_{h-0}{\frac{f(x)}{h}}: \[\lim_{h-0}{\frac{f(x)}{h}}\]

Klammern kann man direkt verwenden oder mit \left und \right angeben. \[{[(a+b)^2]^x}-3\]

General and Logic Symbols

Some symbols that are useful for logic operations.

\(\cup\) : \cup
\(\cap\) : \cap
\(\cdot\) : \cdot
\(\circ\) : \circ
\(\mp\) : \mp
\(\pm\) : \pm
\(\odot\) : \odot
\(\oplus\) : \oplus
\(\ominus\) : \ominus
\(\otimes\) : \otimes
\(\times\) : \times
\(\sqcup\) : \sqcup
\(\sqcap\) : \sqcap
\(\star\) : \star
\(\vee\) : \vee
\(\wedge\) : \wedge
\(\times\) : \times

Relation Symbols

Some symbols that are useful for relationships.

\(\approx\) : \approx
\(\sim\) : \sim
\(\equiv\) : \equiv
\(\in\) : \in
\(\napprox\) : \napprox
\(\owns\) : \owns
\(\parallel\) : \parallel
\(\mid\) : \mid
\(\neq\) : \neq
\(\le\) : \le
\(\ge\) : \ge
\(\ll\) : \ll
\(\gg\) : \gg

Greek Letters

Greek alphabet for LaTeX, more info on Wikipedia.

\(\alpha\) \(A\) : \alpha A
\(\beta\) \(B\) : \beta B
\(\gamma\) \(\Gamma\) : \gamma \Gamma
\(\delta\) \(\Delta\) : \delta \Delta
\(\epsilon\) \(\varepsilon\) \(E\) : \epsilon \varepsilon E
\(\zeta\) \(Z\) : \zeta Z
\(\eta\) \(H\) : \eta H
\(\theta\) \(\vartheta\) \(\Theta\) : \theta \vartheta \Theta
\(\iota\) \(I\) : \iota I
\(\kappa\) \(K\) : \kappa K
\(\lambda\) \(\Lambda\) : \lambda \Lambda
\(\mu\) \(M\) : \mu M
\(\nu\) \(N\) : \nu N
\(\xi\) \(\Xi\) : \xi \Xi
\(\omicron\) o \(O\) : \omicron o O
\(\pi\) \(\Pi\) : \pi \Pi
\(\rho\) \(\varrho\) \(P\) : \rho \varrho P
\(\sigma\) \(\Sigma\) : \sigma \Sigma
\(\tau\) \(T\): \tau T
\(\upsilon\) \(\Upsilon\) : \upsilon \Upsilon
\(\phi\) \(\varphi\) \(\Phi\) : \phi \varphi \Phi
\(\chi\) \(x\) \(X\) : \chi x X
\(\psi\) \(\Psi\) : \psi \Psi
\(\omega\) \(\Omega\) : \omega \Omega

Accent Symbols

\(\acute{a}\) : \acute{a}
\(\bar{a}\) : \bar{a}
\(\breve{a}\) : \breve{a}
\(\dot{a}\) : \dot{a}
\(\grave{a}\) : \grave{a}
\(\hat{a}\) : \hat{a}
\(\ddot{a}\) : \ddot{a}
\(\mathring{a}\) : \mathring{a}

Useful Symbols

\(\emptyset\) : \emptyset
\(\infty\) : \infty Infinity
\(\checkmark\) : \checkmark

More Symbols

An extremely detailed list of symbols can be found over here: The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List